YateUCN – the solution for MVNO networks

With mobile consumers’ expectations on the rise, new business models proliferate. Mobile Virtual Network Operator solutions must differentiate to stay competitive and maximize their offerings.

MVNOs wishing to offer subscribers high quality voice and/or data services can use YateUCN as a GMSC (voice), a GGSN (GPRS), or a PGW (LTE data).

YateUCN supports billing integration through CAMEL, RADIUS, and Diameter.

YateUCN, the unified core network for GSM/GPRS and LTE is a software implementation of the functions and protocols from the 2G and 4G LTE core layers on a commodity server. For GSM and GPRS, YateUCN performs the functions of the MSC, VLR, SGSN, GMSC, and GGSN. From 4G LTE, it acts as an MME, SGW, PGW, and PCRF.

YateUCN can be used to operate either all of these functions (for MNOs) or one specific function (for MVNOs). Each case scenario is presented below.


  • YateUCN for voice (GMSC)

The GMSC (Gateway Mobile Switching Center) functionality serves to locate the subscriber’s HLR (Home Location Register) in a mobile-terminated call, and then to route the call. Based on the information from the originating MSC, YateUCN uses the HLR to find the MSC of the called subscriber; with the number assigned by the HLR, the GMSC then forwards the call to the destination MSC. As a GMSC, YateUCN also provides CAMEL support.

  • YateUCN for data (GGSN and PGW in a single component)

In 2G networks, YateUCN as a GGSN (Gateway GPRS Support Node) is responsible for establishing and maintaining the user’s IP session and for storing billing information. It routes the IP packets to the SGSN in the MNO network over GTP-C. Establishing the data session in the YateUCN core network is independent of the radio network and is performed by the same component which can act either as a GGSN or as a PGW. If a session is initiated in GPRS, the GGSN (YateUCN) will connect to the SGSN over GTP-C v1.

In an LTE network, YateUCN can act as a PGW (PDN Gateway) to assign the IP address to the UE. YateUCN only communicates with the SGW in the operator’s network (over the S8 interface) and supports both Diameter and RADIUS to connect to the charging function in the network. If the session is started in LTE, YateUCN will act as a PGW and will connect to the SGW over GTP-C v2. It is also possible for a session to be started in LTE and continued in a 2G or 3G network.

  • YateUCN for billing integration

YateUCN connects to any billing system used by the MVNO, for both voice and data sessions management. It supports the Diameter Ro interface for prepaid services and the Rf interface for postpaid billing. For real-time credit control over SIP, YateUCN implements the Diameter Credit-Control Application (RFC 4006) to connect to the MVNO’s Charging Server.

  • YateUCN for SIP users

YateUCN also offers support for PC2Call registered users.

The unified core network, YateUCN, provides a profitable and flexible solution for the different requirements of emerging MVNOs. Detailed information about how YateUCN works in 2G and 4G networks is available here.

The Case for the Unconnected Billions

Sending text messages, going on hour-long calls, or live-streaming videos are such an integral part of our lives that most of us take them for granted. And yet around 3 billion people live, today, in areas without access to basic infrastructure – be it remote islands in the Pacific, developing extra-urban areas, or isolated rural areas everywhere around the world.

Mobile communication can connect these people with one another and with technologies that can prove to be vital. Mobile data enables job seeking in wider area ranges, instantly accessing health care information in case of emergency or risk, or keeping farmers in line with market prices and trends.

In remote, unconnected markets, bringing voice and data coverage can be best achieved using GPRS, which provides wider coverage than 3G, and is easier to adapt to rural, remote, or low density areas. In such places, traditional cellular networks have the disadvantage of being economically counterproductive to deploy, and operators are unlikely to invest in hefty infrastructures that generate relatively little revenue from usage compared to the networks’ lifespan maintenance costs.

The YateBTS technology addresses these issues differently than most other approaches to mobile networks. 2.5G networks using SatSite and YateUCN are a simplified, flexible, and low-cost solution that can be adopted anywhere in the world.

Lightweight, low-power sites

SatSite is smaller than typical base stations which makes it easy to build lightweight cell sites that are especially profitable in higher density networks. SatSite’s low power requirements allow operators to plan self-sustaining mobile networks running on solar or wind energy, avoiding the use of costly power grids or diesel systems.

Bandwidth-efficient backhaul

Unlike traditional networks, a YateBTS/YateUCN mobile network allows bandwidth savings of up to 60%, by using the GTP protocol across the entire network.

bring_cov_2015-6-4_version1.2SatSite acts as a BTS/BSC communicating with the YateUCN core network over GTP, without using any additional network nodes, to simplify the network architecture and minimize the backhaul load. Data sessions in networks using YateBTS SatSite can be established either locally, by assigning the IP directly in the SatSite, or in the YateUCN core network, adapting to the constraints of each location.

SatSite unifies the BTS and the BSC from traditional radio access networks architecture, to eliminate the Abis radio interface used to direct traffic between the BTS and the BSC. In conventional cellular networks, the BSC handling all the communication between the core network and the devices leads to high costs and a substantial load on the network. SatSite base station can communicate with YateUCN over satellite, using GTP to replace the signalling interfaces normally used inside the radio access network and to/from the core network.

A satellite backhaul architecture is adapted particularly to sparse networks in areas with a low density populations, where cell sites are far from the core network; satellite allows operators to serve any location, and improve bandwidth performance for both voice and data services. Combined with the light design and an autonomous operation of the SatSite base station, backhaul over satellite makes YateBTS/YateUCN networks ideal for extending connectivity to uncovered areas.

YateBTS in the age of IoT

These days, everybody’s talking about the Internet of Things. And it’s no surprise that everybody loves it; from operators, who see a chance to attack new markets and better retain customers, to urban consumers who can connect a whole range of devices to an app on their smartphones, and farmers who can use technology to optimize their activities and maximize production.

Bringing IoT to such different audiences while maintaining a high quality of service and an efficient use of network resources is a challenge for most carriers’ current infrastructure capabilities and cost strategies. In fact, a critical concern when it comes to creating IoT infrastructure for new areas is laying the ground for that infrastructure – that is, mobile network coverage.

The number of IoT applications designed for farming and livestock breeding is on the rise, but their actual penetration in rural areas is limited to regions with existing GSM/GPRS infrastructure. Remote and rural areas offer mobile operators enticing prospects not only in terms of IoT coverage, but also in terms of connecting these new customers to their entire range of services such as voice, SMS, or data. But due to the high investment requirements for equipment, civil infrastructure, or maintenance, operators are still reluctant in building mobile networks in there areas.

The success of carriers setting up new networks in remote locations depends greatly on keeping investment and operational costs down, as well as on basing their network equipment choices on redundancy, power efficiency, and flexibility. A reliable IoT infrastructure amounts to operators providing continual service, seamlessly, and in very variable weather and terrain conditions. The geography of each area and the specific needs of communities influence every decision going from civil infrastructure to power supplying and equipment maintenance. In areas with low infrastructure where grid power isn’t available, for instance, carriers must rely on alternative power sources to successfully deploy new networks.


YateBTS-powered IoT applications

A base station like the YateBTS SatSite offers a reliable and flexible solution for carriers to bring mobile coverage to remote rural areas. SatSite is a 2.5G low-power, lightweight base station that allows it to be easily installed anywhere from hill tops to outlying crop fields. Practical for lightweight cell sites, it can be operated in single or three-sector sites using a single solar panel. This generates a substantial reduction in operators’ initial investment costs but also in operating cell sites in the long-run.

SatSite’s low operating costs make it a particularly suitable solution for small farms and rural households, where resources are more scarce and used less efficiently. Access to IoT applications can support these communities in rendering farming activities more productive and sustainable. The flexibility of SatSite’s architecture suits the requirements of specific IoT solutions. Used for any range of applications and devices, from water pumps and soil measurement sensors, to herd tracking and monitoring, SatSite optimizes resource allocation to allow carriers to efficiently adapt their networks to the specific demands of each location.

In rural areas, access to IoT infrastructure can make it possible to attain better farming results, optimize productivity, and increase the overall quality of life. Basic mobile services can create new standards for health care, education, as well as social and economic development of these areas. Operators can play the leading role in this process, provided that their decisions successfully combine cost effectiveness for themselves, and service quality for consumers.